Ginger is a significant commercial crop grown for its aromatic rhizomes, used as spice and medicine. Ginger of commerce is a dry rhizome. You can get it in the Indian market in various forms such as raw ginger, dry ginger, bleached dry ginger, ginger powder, ginger candy, ginger beer, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, ginger ale, salted ginger, ginger wine, ginger squash, ginger flakes, e.t.c.
In most states, farmers cultivate ginger. However, states such as Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Gujarat contribute 65% of the country’s total production.
Several types of equipment are used in ginger farming, such as tractors, implements, and harvesters. However, the New Holland 3230 tractor is the best in agriculture for ginger farming. Along with this, we can suggest the Swaraj 735 tractor.
Here we are describing the essential requirements and information for ginger farming in India.
A warm and humid climate helps grow the ginger, and farmers cultivate it from sea level to an altitude of 1500 m. We can grow the ginger in both irrigation conditions and under rain-fed. We need moderate rainfall at sowing time and till the rhizomes sprout to process successful cultivation. Moreover, farmers need well distributed and fairly heavy showers during the growing period, and a month before, most need dry weather before harvester.
Well-drained soil is the best for growing ginger, such as clay loam, sandy loam, lateritic loam, red loam, etc. Loamy loam rich in humus is ideal. However, being a tedious crop, growing ginger in the same soil year after year is not desirable.
Farmers grow several varieties in different ginger growing regions in India, and where they grow, they are generally name after the localities.
Some of the core indigenous cultivars are Ernad, Wayanad, Himachal, Nadia, Kuruppampadi and Maran. ‘Rio – de – Janeiro’ ( exotic cultivar) has become very popular among cultivators. The IISR Varada variety is suitable for making candy, dry ginger and fresh ginger, while IISR Rejatha is rich in essential oil.
The best time for sowing ginger on the west coast of India is during the first fortnight of May when there is pre-monsoon rainfall. However, farmers can plant it much earlier in irrigation conditions, in mid-February or early March. Early sowing with summer rains results in higher yield and fewer disease outbreaks.
Farmers should plough the land 4 to 5 times or well dig with the onset of summer so that the soil becomes well loamy. Then, beds of approximately 1 m width, 30 cm height and convenient length prepare with 50 cm spacing between beds.
In the case of the irrigation crop, they form the weed at a distance of 40 cm. Therefore, solar beds for 40 days using transparent polythene sheets are recommended in areas prone to rhizome rot disease and nematode infestation.
Ginger is propagated by parts of the rhizome known as seed rhizome. Preserving seed rhizomes are cut into small pieces 2.5 – 5.0 cm in length, weighing 20 – 25 g, each with one or two fine buds. The seed rate is different from region to region and with the adoption of cultivating methods. For example, in Kerala, the seed rate is different from 1500 to 1800 kg/ha.
The seed rate can vary from 2000 to 2500 kg/ha at higher altitudes. Seed rhizome bits are placed in a hand-crafted shallow pit and covered and levelled with a thin layer of well-decomposed field compost and soil.
Although planting ginger is not traditional, it is profitable. A single bud sprouts (approximately 5 g) transplantation technique in ginger has been standardized to produce good quality planting material at a low cost.
The yield level of ginger transplants is comparable to conventional planting systems. This technique engages in transplanting from a single seed of sprout rhizome to pro-tray and transplanting it after 30-40 days. The advantages of this technique are the production of healthy planting material and reduction in the amount of seed rhizome, and ultimately lower cost on seeds.
Farmers cultivate the ginger as an irrigated crop in high rainfall (uniform distribution for 5 to 7 months) and low rainfall areas where the distribution is not uniform. Ginger needs 1300-1500 mm of water during the crop cycle. The critical stages for irrigation are during rhizome initiation (90 daps), germination and rhizome development stage (135 daps).
They should give first irrigation immediately after planting. Subsequently, farmers should give irrigation at 7 to 10 days in conventional irrigation. They can also install Sprinkler and drip systems for better water use efficiency and increased yield.
Ginger Inter Cultivation
Weeding carries out immediately before fertilizer application and mulching. Farmers require 2-3 hand weeds, which depends on the intensity of growth. Proper drainage channels should be provided when water stagnates. Earthing up is crucial to prevent exposure to rhizomes and provide adequate soil volume for the free rhizome’s growth. Farmers do this 45 to 90 days after planting, immediately after weeding and application of fertilizers.
Ginger Farming – Harvesting
Ginger elicits full maturity in 210-240 days after planting. Harvesting of ginger starts after 180 days depending on the demand. However, farmers are harvesting the mature rhizomes at full maturity for making dry ginger, i.e. when the leaves turn yellow & dry up. They stop the Irrigation one month before harvesting, and the rhizome bunches are carefully lifted with a spade or digging fork.
The dry leaves, roots and soil stuck to the rhizomes are separated by hand. Late harvesting is also a practice, as keeping the crop underground for a few months does not damage the crop. In India, the domestic market prefers fresh ginger for culinary use, while two kinds of dry ginger are unbleached and bleached produced for export purposes.
The most prominent criteria in assessing the suitability of ginger rhizomes for particular processing purposes are pungency level, fibre content and volatile-oil content. Its state of maturity governs the relative abundance of these three components in fresh rhizomes at the time of harvest.
In the guidance of ginger farming, we can guide the agriculture equipment, such as tractors, implements, harvesters. Now we are guiding about tractors. For ginger farming, Powertrac 434 tractor is the best in agriculture. Along with this, we can suggest the Swaraj 742 tractor.
For more inquiries regarding ginger farming Business in India, stay tuned with us.